Myopic progression is complex in its origins and there have been numerous studies performed in this area. Myopia prevalence in school-aged children is as high as 90% in South East Asian countries. In Australia, it is predicted to approach 50% by 2050. There have been significant scientific advances in the past decade that have given better insight into what causes myopia to progress. Genetics and environment play significant roles. More specifically, it is understood that peripheral hyperopia (long-sightedness) in myopic eyes is a driving force for myopic progression. The eye elongates as a result of the peripheral hyperopic defocus which in turn causes an increase in the degree of myopia.
Myopia control does not reverse the amount of myopia that is present. It aims at minimising the total amount of growth after initiating treatment so that we limit the incidence of high myopia. High myopia is associated with significant sight-threatening risks later in life such as cataract development, retinal detachment and macular degeneration.